Ice formation is still the leading cause of airplane failures by changing aircraft performance
Ice formation on aircraft is a critical component of design and certification requirements, as in-flight icing, causing by accretion of super cooled liquid water droplets, can lead to a drastic change in aircraft performance.
  • The Lagrangian Multiphase model is intended for systems that consist mainly of a single continuous phase carrying a relatively small volume of discrete particles, droplets, or bubbles. It is suited where the interaction of the discrete phase with physical boundaries is important. Shown here is the volume fraction of medium sized droplets on a learjet.
  • Analysis of a wing leading edge and anti-icing protection : in-flight icing, caused by accretion of super cooled liquid water droplets, can lead to a drastic change in aircraft performance and numerical simulation of icing behavior is critical to ensure flight performance of aircraft over varying icing conditions and flow conditions.

Ice accretion leads to increased drag, reduced lift and control problems for an aircraft.

Numerical simulation of icing behavior is important to improve the flight performance of aircraft over varying icing conditions and flow conditions.

There are different elements of modeling for ice protection: cloud/droplet impingement, liquid run-back, ice accretion, anti-icing power (CHT) and aerodynamic performance degradation.

Eulerian Multiphase

This is an accurate and efficient approach for collection efficiency calculations where the freestream is modeled as a multiphase mixture. Current capabilities include statistical particle size distribution, particle breakup/coalescence and conjugate heat transfer, with energy/mass transfer to/from film available in future releases. The EMP model has been well validated against standard experimental data and easy to implement.

Thin Film Model

The thin film model enables mass/energy transfer from Eulerian or Lagrangian multiphase models and can be used for ice accretion analysis. Phase changes such as solidification, melting and evaporation are also included.

Liquid Film Model

Formation and behavior of liquid film due to icing can be analyzed using capabilities like droplet deposition in Lagrangian framework, wave-based stripping and edge stripping. Future capabilities will include extension to Eulerian framework, freeze/thaw and evaporation.

STAR-CCM+ offers various capabilities for droplet tracking and thermal management for icing/aniti-icing. Application areas in this domain include:

  • 3-D flow and heat transfer for internal/external flows
  • Droplet impingement and distribution (Eulerian & Lagrangian framework for collection efficiency)
  • Thin film formation
  • Heat and mass transfer between air, droplet, film
  • Heat transfer from surface to film
  • Thermal management capabilities are targeted to the design and evaluation of de-icing heating elements like piccolo tube and heating strips.
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