Ice accretion leads to increased drag, reduced lift and control problems for an aircraft.
Numerical simulation of icing behavior is important to improve the flight performance of aircraft over varying icing conditions and flow conditions.
There are different elements of modeling for ice protection: cloud/droplet impingement, liquid run-back, ice accretion, anti-icing power (CHT) and aerodynamic performance degradation.
This is an accurate and efficient approach for collection efficiency calculations where the freestream is modeled as a multiphase mixture. Current capabilities include statistical particle size distribution, particle breakup/coalescence and conjugate heat transfer, with energy/mass transfer to/from film available in future releases. The EMP model has been well validated against standard experimental data and easy to implement.
Thin Film Model
The thin film model enables mass/energy transfer from Eulerian or Lagrangian multiphase models and can be used for ice accretion analysis. Phase changes such as solidification, melting and evaporation are also included.
Liquid Film Model
Formation and behavior of liquid film due to icing can be analyzed using capabilities like droplet deposition in Lagrangian framework, wave-based stripping and edge stripping. Future capabilities will include extension to Eulerian framework, freeze/thaw and evaporation.
STAR-CCM+ offers various capabilities for droplet tracking and thermal management for icing/aniti-icing. Application areas in this domain include: