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When Dave Brailsford announced the formation of Team Sky in 2010, he did so with the explicit ambition of propelling a British rider to the top step of the Tour de France podium by 2015. To cycling experts, it seemed like a brave and almost foolhardy prediction. In the 97 editions of the Tour de France that preceded Brailsford's announcement, no British rider had finished in the top 3 of the world's most important cycle race, let alone threatened to win it. Therefore, it seemed unlikely that Brailsford - a newcomer to the world of professional cycling would be able to reverse that lack of fortune in such a short period of time. The experts were wrong and spectacularly so. This Sunday as the Tour wrapped up its 100 year anniversary (two years ahead of Brailsford schedule) Team Sky rider, Christopher Froome rode into Paris wearing the coveted yellow jersey on his shoulders with a comfortable 5 minute margin over the second place rider. In doing so, he claimed not the first, but the second consecutive victory for a British Team Sky rider at the Tour de France, following in the footsteps of last year's winner Sir Bradley Wiggins. So how did Team Sky manage to beat their own prediction and deliver a double British victory two years ahead of their plan?
In the last years the limitation of resources and rising environmental pollution at the same time caused a rethinking in society. Careful handling of raw materials gets more and more important. These circumstances in combination with more severe legislative boundary conditions have big influences on the automotive industry. The acceptance of vehicles with high fuel consumption decreases from year to year. “Green” vehicles driven by alternative propulsion concepts reach increased market penetrations. Among other measures, the potential of aerodynamics has to be tapped to reduce the fuel...
With the experimental data from a road test with a full-size tractor-trailer configuration, I am to recreate the experiment within STAR-CCM+ and compare the solution to the given data. For realistic conditions the simulation will include the rotation of the tires, the relative translation of the road and a detailed volume mesh, which all will be implemented directly via STAR_CCM+.
How Do You Consider Surface Tension Effects Between Particles When Using DEM? In STAR-CCM+, we can model the effect of the presence of the liquid film on the surface of DEM particles in the approximation of liquid bridge model. The capillary force resulting from the surface tension and the pressure difference inside the liquid bridge has known dependence on the wetting angle, liquid surface tension, particle size, etc. If one assumes particular shape of liquid bridge, the solution of Laplace-Young equation provides the solution for hydrostatic pressure within liquid bridge. This gives the analytical solution for the maximum force needed to separate two particles connected with liquid bridge (lots of literature is available on this, including using liquid bridge model with DEM). Now, you just need to equate the liquid bridge force with STAR-CCM+ expression for linear cohesion force and voilà! - obtain the value of STAR-CCM+ cohesion parameter. Using cohesion model this way should account for the surface tension effect on the bulk flow of wet grains.
After explaining why simulating a pool break is so difficult in my last blog post, I couldn't resist actually performing the simulation using Discrete Element Modelling in STAR-CCM+ .
DEM Simulation of a Pool Break
A DEM simulation of a pool break. This simulation does not include the influence of the gravitional pull of the big guy leaning against the bar, or of every single particle in the universe (see this blog post for more information )
CD-adapco today announced a partnership with USA Luge. Together with Panther Racing, the company will provide guidance and technical assistance to USA Luge in an effort to increase aerodynamic efficiency of the team's sleds and racers.
Simulation with STAR-CCM+ showing velocity magnitude contours around a work station with the personal breeze fan turned on.