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Driven by the twin demands of evolving customer expectations and increasing emissions regulation, the global automotive industry is in a race to deliver a sustainable compliment (if not replacement) to the Internal Combustion Engine. For now, propulsion systems based partially, or entirely, around electricity seem like the most credible prospect for providing the greatest reduction in CO2 emissions, within a reasonable timescale. However, compared to gasoline engines, the cost of electrified power trains remains high, mainly due to the high cost of the batteries required to store and deliver the electrical power needed to drive such vehicles. Both Automotive OEMs and battery manufacturers are investing heavily in battery technology, with the aim of extending battery life, achieving higher energy densities and faster charging times, while improving both safety and reliability. A lot of this investment focuses on the efficient thermal control of battery cells.
CFD Model of Aortic Coarctation, demonstrating Windkessel model (lumped parameter model)
The presented work is part of a CFD challenge investigating the potential for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predicted pressures and flows in an aortic coarctation during stress when conditions for the rest case are known. In our approach, we choose to couple a three element Windkessel model to the outlet boundaries.

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