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For a long time, downsizing of combustion engines was the most desired method to reduce fuel consumption of automobiles. Today almost all engines in all vehicle classes are charged and have fewer and smaller cylinders. Charging the smaller combustion chambers is achieved with (exhaust gas) turbochargers which use the exhaust energy. The turbine transfers a part of the energy that would otherwise be lost to the compressor, which then delivers the intake air to the cylinders with higher pressure. Dynamics 36 - Read more...
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is an increasing public health issue affecting more than 8% of the global population. The most severe stage of CKD is End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) which is a total failure of the kidneys, requiring either dialysis or a kidney transplant for the patient to live. Statistics show that more than 50% of the patients suffering from ESRD do not meet the requirements for a transplant and hence depend on dialysis. An estimated two million people are currently receiving dialysis treatment worldwide. The majority of patients receiving this treatment are from five countries...
Figure 1 shows the forward current vs. forward voltage (I-V) characteristics of a typical diode. When placing a forward voltage across an LED, as is the case with any diode, the current initially does not flow until the forward voltage is increased to a level sufficiently high to pass a certain threshold, after which it flows freely in the normal conducting direction. For LEDs, the I-V characteristics at which point this occurs affects the color and intensity of the light emitted; in other words, although the principal behavior is the same for all LEDs, the light produced highly depends on...
Skiffs are high-performance, fast and powerful dinghies designed for onshore racing. An example of Olympic skiff is the well-known 49er. Skiffs have a light displacement, flat hull and an oversized sail-plan, allowing planing with light wind in both upwind and downwind conditions. The typical sailplan comprises a square top mainsail, a blade jib and a gennaker tacked on the bowsprit. The righting moment is mostly due to the weight of the crew who uses racks and trapezes. In strong breeze and high boat speed conditions, the crew moves aft, lifting the bow out of the water in order to decrease...
When designing a sailing craft with high performance characteristics, the sails are clearly the main element that must be optimized in order to achieve maximum performance. The sails provide propulsion to the craft, using the kinetic power of the wind to generate the force required for movement. As with any machine that has to draw power from a fluid to achieve optimum performance, an accurate fluid-dynamic analysis is required. Furthermore, in order to ensure proper structural integrity and optimized performance for a large range of sail deformations, the loads generated by the fluid on the...
While every engineer strives to create the new best thing since sliced bread, often his or her work must be focused on the more mundane: taking a product or idea already on the market and making it better, faster, smaller, lighter, cheaper or somehow more improved. This optimization, while not as exciting as groundbreaking new designs, is still vitally important for technological advancement. Compare the latest cell phones to the very first cell phone models ever made, or a laptop to the ENIAC, and you can see what optimization can do for the world, much less for customers, who are almost...
In today’s fast-paced and competitive climate, improved product performance and shortening of lead times are critical for business success across all industries. With computational resources more readily available, simulation, now more than ever, is a key enabler for making sound engineering decisions while addressing complex customer requirements. As engineering management has new visionary ideas and demands more product design variants in a shorter time, engineers must rely on efficient and flexible multi-disciplinary design exploration (MDX) to tap into the many benefits simulation has to...
One of the greatest challenges of engineering analysis is being able to understand how changes in geometry and flow features might influence your system’s performance. For a long time, the only way to gain insight into the sensitivity of engineering objectives to changes in input was to run multiple analyses and then dig through the results. The introduction of the adjoint solver in STAR-CCM+, however, changed that allowing for direct access to sensitivity information from a single simulation. Dynamics 36 - Read more...
While raindrops falling on your head might represent a minor annoyance, the same raindrops accumulating on your car windscreen, or forming as ice on an aircraft wing can represent a serious safety concern. However, until recently simulating multiphase problems such as aircraft icing, vehicle soiling and water management has presented a significant computational challenge, due to the need to model the tiny particles of water as huge numbers of discrete Langrangian droplets. These droplets impinge on key vehicle surfaces, such as aircraft wings and car side mirrors, to form a fluid film or, if...
When you hear the phrase “Volume Rendering”, the first thing that may come to mind is a collection of highly compelling medical images depicting our internal organic structures. You might also recall movie blockbuster special effects showing things like clouds, smoke, storms and explosions. And you might be thinking that these high-end visualizations are the exclusive domain of dedicated medical imaging facilities and animation powerhouses like Dreamworks and Pixar. What would you think about being able to create a “Volume Rendered” depiction of your CFD results on your laptop? And why would...

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