Eulerian Multiphase (EMP)
The Eulerian Multiphase (EMP) model is suitable for fluids that can be considered continuous and interpenetrating, rather than discrete in nature. Typically a one phase would be considered to exist as unresolved modeled droplets or bubbles within another. The phases can interact both in terms of the drag and lift forces acting between them, but also in terms of heat and mass transfer, such as inter and intra phase reactions, and wall and bulk boiling.
Dispersed particle flows can also be modeled as an Eulerian phase, allowing applications such as granular flows in fluidized bed reactors to be simulated. The Solid Pressure Force model is available for granular flows approaching the packing limit, and particle size distributions can be handled using the S-Gamma model.
Volume Of Fluid (VOF) Model
Within this Eulerian framework, STAR-CCM+ also has the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) model which is used for the simulation of immiscible free surfaces, such as the development of waves around a ship hull (and consequential drag), or slugging flow in a pipe. To assist in the setting up of VOF cases, the model allows you to define VOF waves which are then used to initialize the VOF calculation and to provide suitable profiles at boundaries, vastly simplifying the setup of such cases. These waves can be superimposed to allow for the modeling of any scenario.
Fluid Film Model
Also within the Eulerian framework, the Fluid Film model allows thin fluid films to be modeled on the surface of your geometry. Typical applications include vehicle soiling, aircraft (anti) icing, oil films on the internal surfaces of automotive engines and gas turbines, spray-cooling systems, and ink-jet printers. The fluid film can interact with other phases, accepting impinging droplets from Lagrangian or Dispersed phases and allowing droplets to be shed by film stripping. The film can condense from and evaporate to Eulerian phases and boiling of the film can also be modeled.
Dispersed Multiphase (DMP)
With the release of STAR-CCM+ v9.02, a new multiphase model has been added to the Eulerian framework – the Dispersed Multiphase model (DMP). Now, the simulation of applications such as aircraft deicing and anti-icing, and vehicle soiling and water management which previously required the Lagrangian Multiphase (LMP) model, take a fraction of the time with the DMP model. The Dispersed Multiphase model is a lightweight, computationally efficient model, which is typically used to model tiny water or rain droplets in wet free-stream air before they impinge on a vehicle or other object. The DMP model treats droplets as a continuous background phase superimposed on the single phase primary flow. This results in a model which is very much less computationally expensive that the Lagrangian equivalent, without the need for the full physics capability of Eulerian Multiphase (EMP).
In addition to the comprehensive physics of the Eulerian Multiphase Model, the ease-of-use for streamlined setup of complex multiphase problems makes STAR-CCM+ the preferred solution for Multiphase applications.