Transition from plasma to initial flame kernel development
Flame propagation which later results in autoignition (knock) ahead of the flame in the unburned gas
Summary of STAR-CD and es-ice capabilities : to keep pace with developments in engine technology, CD-adapco is continuously developing the software to add new capabilities and functionality
Here, the secondary (high voltage) circuit of the ignition system is included and a Lagrangian method is used to initiate and track a series of particles of high energy gas used to represent the plasma between the spark plug electrodes. The interaction of these particles with the gas and the transfer of their energy to the Eulerian gas phase initiates the flame kernel.
As AKTIM provides a model rather than a prescription of ignition, this has the advantage that phenomena such as misfire caused by low spark energy, large spark gap or high gas velocity at the electrodes can be simulated.